Congenital heart defects as with ventricular or atrial septal defects or severe Malformations such as; tetralogy or Fallot, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Congenital Anomalies of the upper Gastrointestinal Tract such; as Esophageal Atresia, Tracheoesophageal Fistula, Esophageal Duplications, Developmental Obstructive Defects of the stomach such as hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, Gastric atresia, congenital gastric obstruction, and Duodenal Obstruction/atresia, etc.
Metabolic disorders such as; Adrenal Hypoplasia, Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency, Argininosuccinic Aciduria, etc.
Neurological Impairment as with Massive Brain Damage. For example, Infantile Cerebral Palsy, Anoxia Brain Injury, Brain Tumors, Cerebral Atrophy, Cerebellar Hypoplasia, Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Head Trauma, etc.
Genetic syndromes/Chromosomal syndromes causing feeding/eating disorders such as; Alagille Syndrome, Alexander’s Disease, Alfi’s Syndrome, Allan Herdon Dudley Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Antley-bixler Syndrome, Barth Syndrome, Bartter Syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome, Bohring, Costello Syndrome, Silver-Russel Syndrome, Franceschetti syndrome, Noonan-syndrome, Corneila deLage Syndrome etc. Syndrome related malformations such as heart defect in Down syndrome, choanal atresia in CHARGE-syndrome and many more
Psychosomatic/psychiatric eating disorders such as infantile anorexia
Children who suffer from cancer may need ENS during chemotherapy to help prevent them from losing weight.
Children suffering from renal insufficiency or renal diseases often lack appetite
Absent Swallow Reflex, Achalasia, Aspiration
Craniofacial such as Cervical Lymphangioma, Cleft pallet, etc.
Some children with Autism
Polyps and weak muscles in the trachea
Inability to clear mucus for the lungs and airway
Severe breathing conditions
Tumors such as cystic hygroma
Severe infection such as epiglottitis or croup
Vocal cord paralysis
Laryngeal spasms or injury
Congenital abnormalities of the airway
Obstruction of airway
Pierre Robin Syndromes
Severe neck or mouth injuries
Obstructive sleep apnea
Chronic pulmonary disease
Chest wall injury
Paralyzing or weakening chest muscles and diaphragm
Fracture of cervical vertebrae
Spinal cord injury
Long-term unconsciousness or coma
Congenital Central Hypoventilation